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Most colleges offer an accounting degree. But our degree will make you more attractive to employers than most. Why? Because at Lakeland, you won’t just learn how to crunch numbers. You will get out of the classroom and apply your knowledge in a real-world setting. And that’s exactly what employers want to see on a resume.

Come to Lakeland, and your out-of-class accounting journey will include:

“We certainly provide all the necessary technical knowledge, but the link between classroom learning and actual experience in the field is what’s most valuable,” says Brett Killion, assistant professor of accounting. “We really emphasize becoming a strong professional and helping students get that actual experience, so when they go out into the work world, they’re prepared to be great employees.”

Cooperative Education

Lakeland’s Cooperative Education Program allows accounting majors to earn significant wages and academic credit while working full time for one of our accounting partners. Between scholarship awards and wages, students have the ability to earn more than $107,000 during their four years at Lakeland, which can significantly reduce or eliminate post-graduation debt. Accounting majors in the co-op program will graduate with 12-18 months of real world experience, further solidifying their resume.

Covering all the bases

Our accounting program is comprehensive. You will be exposed to financial accounting (record-keeping); managerial accounting (budgeting, forecasting, strategic planning); tax accounting and many other facets of this popular field.

“But we also offer a lot of flexibility in terms of emphasis tracks,” Killion says. “We have a fraud and forensics emphasis track and we have a finance and insurance track as well.”

Forensic Accounting at Lakeland

White collar corporate crime is a growing problem in our society. We are one of only a few United States colleges that offer a fraud and forensic emphasis accounting degree. That’s a source of pride for us, and a valuable option for you.

“You are combining your accounting skills, your analytical skills and your detective skills, and putting them all together,” says Killion. “You’re almost an accounting crime solver. You’re not just sitting in a cubicle with a calculator.”

Managerial accounting can be an imposing course for even the best student. Lakeland’s Milwaukee Center had just the right recipe to make this challenging course more palatable for students.

As part of its semester project, the managerial accounting class at the Milwaukee Center baked cookies and other desserts to allow students a chance to use concepts and terms from class and apply them to a real-life situation.

“In managerial accounting, we discuss manufacturing concepts and terms such as direct material, direct labor, overhead, contribution margins and break-even analysis. Instead of having students just memorize terms, I had them apply these terms in their manufacturing (baking) process,” instructor Dion Borkowicz.

Students baked cookies or another snack and tracked all their costs so that they could evaluate the profitability of their production. Students created PowerPoint presentations to show preparation and execution, along with their cost calculations and break-even analysis.

On presentation day, students delivered cookies for the class to do a valuable “quality check.” Cookie project snacks included cake pops, cupcakes and a variety of cookies.

Each student left class with a Tupperware container full of a variety of snacks, enough to fulfill anyone’s sweet tooth, all while applying valuable business lessons.

Jacob Barthels is such a nice guy, he doesn’t like to decline reasonable requests.

Last summer, when a campus-wide request asked students to represent Lakeland University in the July 4 Sheboygan parade, Jacob immediately volunteered. But there’s only so much time in a day, and when the junior double major (accounting and business with a finance and insurance emphasis) was recently offered five great internships in a two-week span, he had no choice but to turn a few of them down.

Barthels, a junior from Sheboygan Falls, Wis., is busy. Starting in spring, he will help continue to strengthen LU’s great relationship with Smoky Mountain Mens Parker Western Boot Square Toe 4055 Brown IniraEV8C
when he interns there. Then, in the summer, he will serve as an intern at La Sportiva Mutant Womens Trail Running Shoes SS18 Ultra Raptor Woman Purple/Marine Blue Talla 41 fhRtyvP
– one of the nation’s biggest cheese companies. He will be Lakeland’s first Sargento intern in nearly two decades.

These experiences will make Jacob’s already-strong résumé even more robust. He’s already completed an internship in Lakeland’s finance office and in the finance office of Clipper City Co-op in Manitowoc. Jacob has always had an affinity for math and working with money. His dream job is to someday serve as the CFO for a large manufacturing company.

At Lakeland, he likes to be involved, and is currently the treasurer for three organizations: Cru, Lakeland Rotaract and the LU Accounting Club.

“Lakeland’s family feel is what I love most,” he said. “Knowing so many staff and faculty members on such a personal level, being able to say ‘hi’ to them every day and just talk about life; that’s really meaningful.

“Also, there are so many career opportunities with really big-time companies in the Sheboygan area. There are tons of jobs out there, right outside our door.”

When “The Accountant” hits big screens later this month, you can bet Lakeland University senior Jocelyn Yeager will be among the first in line.

The much-anticipated movie, starring Ben Affleck, is about a CPA who secretly does dirty freelance work for criminals. Yeager, whose academic and career passion is forensic accounting and fraud, loves that kind of story.

Every Tuesday night for the next couple of months, Lakeland University junior Alexia Janz will drive to Milwaukee, take a deep breath, leap out of her comfort zone and enjoy a three-hour adrenaline surge.

Janz is a member of The Commons, a unique, fresh, open-minded approach to education, innovation and collaboration.

“This is a great way for me to test myself, to discover what I’m capable of,” says Janz, who’s double majoring in accounting and management information systems (MIS).

Huberty CPAs, through its innovative Premier Student Program, continues to tap into Lakeland University’s accounting talent.

At least six current Huberty employees are Lakeland alumni, and two of them went through Huberty’s PSP. The firm has also awarded four Lakeland students (and Huberty PSP participants) internships.

Lakeland’s Alexia Janz recently accepted a paid internship offer by Huberty CPAs after making a strong impression during the PSP. She will begin in that role this December in Plymouth.

Recent Grads, Real Careers

Listed below are just some of the actual jobs Lakeland University accounting students from recent graduating classes have landed:

Brett Killion
Associate Professor of Accounting
Bob Martin
Adjunct Instructor of Accounting
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Jerald Whitehouse

former director of the Global Center for Adventist-Muslim Relations

That the insider movement phenomenon has in the last few decades attracted a lot of attention and debate within missiological circles is a given fact. Some of the conversations and debates have been very productive and enlightening. Unfortunately, others have been acrimonious and divisive. Part of the confusion, though, is due to the fact that the phenomenon—or rather the ways it has hitherto been articulated—appeared new, fluid, and controversial to many. The range of chapters in this volume, mostly written by scholar-missionaries with firsthand experience of insider movements, and by Muslim believers in Jesus, sheds fresh light and helpful insights that will move the conversation forward. This volume will certainly not satisfactorily answer all the critics. Nevertheless, the spirit and scholarship contained here are highly commendable to those who are genuinely seeking to understand and engage with what God may be doing in the Muslim world in our generation.

John Azumah professor of world

Christianity and Islam, Columbia Theological Seminary

Beating the same drum the same way only produces the same sound. People long for the sound of the orchestra, a harmony of notes that satisfies the soul. The blending of the sound of instruments tells a story that fulfills longing. Insider is the sound of a symphony waiting to be played. Insider is the message of grace from a God of grace who conducts the orchestra. The orchestra, composed of a wide range of instruments and mutually dependent musicians, delivers the redemptive song through a new sound. Understanding Insider Movements is worth the listen.

Warren Reeve

vice president of the National Evangelical Church of Kuwait

Contributors Abbreviations Foreword: Toward Mutual Understanding, Edification, and Cooperation J. Dudley Woodberry Acknowledgments Read This First!

Part 1: Setting the Stage

Introduction to Part 1

1. Insider Movements: Coming to Terms with Terms John Jay Travis 2. Historical Development of the Insider Paradigm Harley Talman 3. Muslim Followers of Jesus? Joseph Cumming 4. When God’s Kingdom Grows like Yeast: Frequently Asked Questions about Jesus Movements within Muslim Communities John Jay Travis and J. Dudley Woodberry 5. Myths and Misunderstandings about Insider Movements Kevin Higgins, Richard Jameson, and Harley Talman 6. Seeing Inside Insider Missiology: Exploring Our Theological Lenses and Presuppositions Leonard N. Bartlotti

Part 1 Study Questions

Part 2: Examples, Testimonies, and Analysis

Introduction to Part 2

Section 1: Examples and Testimonies 7. Jesus Movements: Discovering Biblical Faith in the Most Unexpected Places Gavriel Gefen 8. When “Christian” Does Not Translate Frank Decker 9. Living and Discipling in the Hindu World K. Venkatesh 10. “Why I Am Not a Christian”: A Personal Statement O. Kandaswami Chetti 11. The New Buddhists: How Buddhists Can Follow Christ Banpote Wetchgama 12. Comments on the Insider Movement Mazhar Mallouhi 13. My Enemy . . . My Brother: A Palestinian Christian Meets His Muslim Brothers Hanna Shahin 14. And the Spirit Fell upon Them: Testimonies of the Holy Spirit’s Activity in One Insider Movement Tom Payn

Section 2: Case Study Analysis 15. Jesus Movement: A Case Study from Eastern Africa Ben Naja 16. Insider Movements among Muslims: A Focus on Asia John Jay Travis 17. Pandita Ramabai and the Meanings of Conversion H. L. Richard 18. Christ Followers in India Flourishing—but Outside the Church: A Review of Herbert E. Hoefer’s Churchless Christianity H. L. Richard 19. Ecclesial Identities of Socioreligious “Insiders”: A Case Study of Fellowship among Hindu and Sikh Communities Darren Duerksen

Part 2 Study Questions

Part 3: Biblical and Theological Perspectives

Introduction to Part 3

20. The Kingdom of God: A Biblical Paradigm for Mission Anthony Taylor 21. The Old Testament and Insider Movements Harley Talman 22. Conversion in the New Testament Michael Roberts and Richard Jameson 23. Jesus Living and Discipling among the Lost John Ridgway 24. Jesus in Samaria: A Paradigm for Church Planting among Muslims Kevin Higgins 25. The Key to Insider Movements: The “Devoteds” of Acts Kevin Higgins 26. The Incarnational Model of Jesus, Paul, and the Jerusalem Council J. Dudley Woodberry 27. Acts 15: An Inside Look Harley Talman 28. The Integrity of the Gospel and Insider Movements Rebecca Lewis 29. The Supremacy of Scripture: The Transcultural and Timeless Authority for Local Theology in Global Conversation Harley Talman 30. Church in Context Herbert Hoefer 31. All Things Are Yours H. L. Richard

Part 3 Study Questions

Part 4: Contextualization, Religion, and Syncretism

Introduction to Part 4

Section 1: Contextualization 32. Liberating Christ from Christians, Christianity, and the Church Archbishop Gregoire Haddad 33. The Gospel as Prisoner and Liberator of Culture Andrew Walls 34. A Necessarily Wary Enterprise?: North American Evangelicals and Contextualization Mark Young 35. A Third Reformation? Movements of the Holy Spirit beyond Christendom Ralph D. Winter 36. The Incarnation, Communication, and Insider Movements Charles H. Kraft

Section 2: Religion and Syncretism 37. Reflections on Religion Harley Talman 38. (De)Franchising Missions Kyle Holton 39. Considering Religion(s): What Does the Word Really Mean? Kurt Anders Richardson 40. Religious Syncretism as a Syncretistic Concept: The Inadequacy of the “World Religions” Paradigm in Cross-cultural Encounter H. L. Richard 41. Contextualization, Syncretism, and the Demonic in Indigenous Movements David Taylor 42. Avoiding Syncretism: The Testimony of a Jesus-following Buddhist Taweeporn Sarun

Part 4 Study Questions

Part 5: Approaches in Witness

Introduction to Part 5

43. Shall We Try Unbeaten Paths in Working for Moslems? Henry H. Riggs 44. An Approach to Witness Virginia Cobb 45. Contextualization among Muslims: Reusing Common Pillars J. Dudley Woodberry 46. Christian Attitudes toward Islam and Muslims: A Kerygmatic Approach Martin Accad 47. Roles of “Alongsiders” in Insider Movements: Contemporary Examples and Biblical Reflections John and Anna Travis 48. Become Like, Remain Like (Take Two) Harley Talman 49. Evangelizing Whole Families Alex G. Smith 50. Planting Churches: Learning the Hard Way Tim and Rebecca Lewis

Part 5 Study Questions

Part 6: Concerns and Misunderstandings

Introduction to Part 6

51. The C1–C6 Spectrum after Fifteen Years: Misunderstandings, Limitations, and Recommendations John Jay Travis 52. Responding to Christian Concerns Interview with Brother Yusuf 53. Muslim Followers of Jesus and the Muslim Confession of Faith Harley Talman 54. “Is Allah God?”: Five Reasons I Am Convinced Jesse S. Wheeler 55. In the World but Not of It: Insider Movements and Freedom from the Demonic Anna Travis 56. Possible Pitfalls of Jesus Movements: Lessons from History Rebecca Lewis 57. Where We Agree . . . and Don’t? Michael Roberts

Part 6 Study Questions

Part 7: Identity

Introduction to Part 7

58. Insider Movements: Honoring God-given Identity and Community Rebecca Lewis 59. Dual Identity and the Church in the Book of Acts Kevin Higgins 60. Consuming Peanuts in the USA and India: Reflecting on the Controversy over Insider Movements Joshua Iyadurai 61. Heart Allegiance and Negotiated Identity Eric Adams 62. Searching for Models of Individual Identity Jens Barnett 63. Societal Factors Impacting Socioreligious Identities of Muslims Who Follow Jesus John and Anna Travis 64. God’s Creativity in Drawing Muslims to Jesus Richard Jameson

Part 7 Study Questions A Look to the Future

Appendix 1: The Samaritan Religion Samuel Livingway Appendix 2: World Evangelical Alliance (WEA) Evangelical Relationships Commitment Appendix 3: Review of A Theological Analysis of the Insider Movement Paradigm from Four Perspectives by Doug Coleman Bradford Greer

Glossary Bibliography Index

Foreword Toward Mutual Understanding, Edification, and Cooperation

Recently I sat at a table with colleagues who were involved with new movements of followers of Jesus from Muslim families. We had different perspectives on insider movements (IMs), but we had common concerns: we all wanted to see these new followers of Jesus grow in their faith and witness through Bible study and fellowship with other believers and develop a second generation of mature followers of Christ. This led us first to seek to understand each other, correct our misunderstandings where necessary, and then cooperate to the extent possible. The current volume is intended as a step in this direction. Much has been written on the topic of IMs by those who have never seen one and hence must rely on hearsay and conjecture. The editors of the current collection of essays have had years of experience both with traditional churches and missions and with IMs in Asia and Africa. For example, John Travis and his wife, Anna, after eighteen years of praying and sharing with Muslims in Asia, saw a small IM begin in their own neighborhood while they were temporarily out of the country. This IM began with the witness of a respected middle-aged Muslim woman who had studied the Bible for years and had just recently begun praying with Anna (see chap. 16). Harley Talman, in turn, discipled Muslim tribal sheikhs in a war-torn African country. They were drawn to the stories of the prophets that point to Jesus—who came not to establish a new religion, but to bring the kingdom of God. Dozens of sheikhs decided together to become his followers so that the gospel could transform their communities. My own exposure to IMs resulted from my being asked to oversee a three-year study of new movements to Christ in Asia and Africa that included an IM in South Asia. Those in the latter group said that they felt closer to God when reading the Gospel than when reading the Qur’an and were studying the Gospel on a regular basis. When surveyed again five years later, these believers had grown considerably in their understanding of the Bible and in spiritual maturity. The importance of IMs was found in the most comprehensive recent research on fruitful practices of field workers among Muslims, including both nationals as well as expatriates. The study showed that the more the newly planted fellowships were contextualized to the Muslim community, the more they began to spread spontaneously. A major reason for this was that the IM believers remained within their social networks. While this certainly is not the most important factor, it is significant. One problem is what to call these movements. This book uses “insider movements,” since this is the most common term; however, I like the contrast of the “attractional model” of the traditional church and the “transformational model” of the IMs. Both are biblical concepts. The traditional churches seek to use the “attractional model” (see Matt 5:14–16), but often cultural, ethnic, and historical factors hinder this approach both from the Muslim and Christian sides. On the other hand, the “transformational model” (see Rom 12:2) of planting the gospel in social networks allows the inquirers to be transformed in their context through group Bible study conducted under the enabling of the Holy Spirit. The present book is an anthology of articles on IMs. As such it represents a variety of views. As Kevin Higgins observes (chap. 5), everything that you have heard about China is true in some part of China. The same might be said about IMs. Here, however, the emphasis is on what is typically true of these movements. Therefore he deals with certain misconceptions of IMs, such as that they are primarily the result of pressure from expatriates, or are watering down the gospel, or are attempts to avoid persecution. Others, such as Tim Green (sidebar, chap. 58), Eric Adams (chap. 61), and Jens Barnett (chap. 62) note that people in transition tend to have dual or even multiple identities—core, social, and collective. Though not focusing on IMs specifically, their findings are helpful to us in understanding them. The core identity of Jesus followers in IMs is their relationship with God through Jesus. Their social identity with their family and coworkers and their collective identity in their society place them within the broader Muslim community of which they are a part. John and Anna Travis (chap. 63) note the factors that influence the identity that Jesus followers choose—such as whether the national church (if any) is culturally and ethnically compatible with the Muslim community, or is welcoming or defensive. IMs are seen as valid to bring the gospel to communities that in many cases the traditional church can barely reach at all. Their identities evolve as the new Jesus followers study God’s word in fellowship together. God is working across the spectrum of Jesus followers as never before. If we from different perspectives can sit around a table as a group of us did recently, we can seek to understand each other, change our perspectives if needed, and cooperate where we can. If we do, that table can be a foretaste of the table that Jesus is preparing for all his followers in his kingdom (Mark 14:25).

J. Dudley Woodberry

dean emeritus and senior professor of Islamic studies

School of Intercultural Studies, Fuller Theological Seminary

READ THIS FIRST !

God is doing a new thing . . . again! Large numbers of people from the world’s major religious traditions are choosing to follow Jesus of Nazareth. In following Christ, some of these are joining traditional Christian churches and leaving the religious communities of their birth. Others, however, are following Jesus in different ways. The Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary calculates, as of 2010 approximately 5.9 million non-Christians were following Christ from within the context of their own religious and cultural traditions. These include insider movements as well as hidden and secret believers. The Center’s estimate for the year 2000 for these types of believers was 4.6 million, which means that they grew at 2.5% per year from 2000–2010 or twice as fast as Christianity as a whole. 85% of these individuals are either Hindus or Muslims. Given current trends, these are expected to grow to 6.5 million by mid-2014.

Similar to how discipleship to Jesus in the first century moved beyond the confines of the Jewish community, opening a way for Gentiles to follow Jesus, we are now witnessing the growth of discipleship movements to Jesus within non-Christian religious traditions. This phenomenon, often referred to as “insider movements” (IMs) or “Jesus movements within” (JMWs), has caught the attention of many people.

Numerous articles have appeared over the past fifteen years on the topic of insider movements. There has been confusion and controversy as well as misunderstanding and misrepresentation. Newcomers to the conversation are often bewildered, scarcely knowing where to start reading. Moreover, even those who are heavily engaged in this issue find it difficult to keep abreast of all that has been written. Until now, no book has been published that seeks to present this phenomenon in a comprehensive fashion. Understanding Insider Movements: Disciples of Jesus within Diverse Religious Communities is a response to the many voices that have been calling for such a publication.

As the title indicates, we describe these discipleship movements as occurring within diverse religious communities rather than religions, as the latter might connote a mixing of biblical faith with unbiblical theological beliefs and practices. However, neither do we describe these movements as merely being within “diverse communities” or “diverse cultures,” as if the discipleship were being expressed through neutral, non-religious forms. These are religious communities with religious cultures, replete with their own holidays, histories, customs, foods, vocabularies, and ways of life.

Western readers must understand that the way religions function in much of the world is very different from how they function in most secular or Western countries, especially where a separation of church and state exists. Religious forms, symbols, and culture for much of the world are often fused so that religions function like cultures. While those who follow Christ in insider movements undergo transformation of their spiritual lives and theological beliefs, they retain much of their religious culture.

Our initial intent was to compile an anthology of existing articles. We sifted through the many published articles, seeking to select those seminal, influential, or representative writings that get to the heart of this subject. However, as we surveyed these articles, it became evident that there were some gaps in the literature. As a result, a substantial number of articles have been written and included as fresh contributions to this subject. Due to space limitations, we have sometimes given priority to succinct treatments over lengthier ones or used relevant excerpts instead of full articles. We have also taken the liberty of standardizing the transliteration of Arabic and foreign-language words and names for the convenience of readers, as well as making many minor changes for accuracy and consistency in mechanics, spelling, source documentation style, etc.—changes that aid understanding without altering style or meaning.

We rejoice over all the ways that God is moving in the world today. Much has already been written elsewhere about more traditional approaches. It is not our purpose in this book to give equal time to all opinions on the subject of insider movements—space alone precludes this. But we do aim to clarify common misunderstandings, offer answers to oft-heard objections, and address areas of legitimate concern so that the reader may more accurately understand insider movements (as promised by this book’s title). Our hope is that readers will understand the nature and significance of these movements and acquire an even deeper appreciation of the great variety that exists worldwide within the body of Christ.

Our primary intended audience is those committed to seeing the good news of Jesus Christ cross social, cultural, and religious barriers. Educators might choose this volume as a textbook for students in religious studies and cross-cultural training programs. Those positively disposed toward insider movements may find it useful in helping explain the complex issues of these movements to their constituencies. This book may also be useful as a reference guide for those interested or engaged in cross-cultural witness among those of non-Christian religious traditions.

We trust that our aim of bringing greater understanding of insider movements will be achieved by the arrangement of our presentation into the following seven parts: 1. Setting the Stage 2. Examples, Testimonies, and Analysis 3. Biblical and Theological Perspectives 4. Contextualization, Religion, and Syncretism 5. Approaches in Witness 6. Concerns and Misunderstandings 7. Identity

Some readers may be from non-Christian religious communities. Perhaps you have only caught glimpses of a Jesus clothed exclusively in culturally Christian forms or, worse, one who is tied to foreign political systems and civilizations. We hope you will discover in these pages that we, as followers of Jesus, deeply regret how the impression has often been given that Jesus is for some but not for others—as though one group had a monopoly on Jesus. In fact the opposite is true: we believe that the love of God in Jesus is for every community, family, and person on earth regardless of culture, religious community, or nationality. We as his followers are called to share this message and do all we can to remove barriers that might separate anyone from him. We support the right of all people to know and follow the risen Jesus regardless of their religious community or label. Our heart’s desire, dear reader, is that all would experience the life about which Jesus spoke: “Now this is eternal life: that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent” (John 17:3).

This anthology is long, intended to serve as a reference guide. We recommend, however, reading all of part 1, “Setting the Stage,” before delving into other sections. We pray for God’s blessing in your life as you read this book.

The Editors

Introduction to Part 1

Citing passages from both the Qur’an and the Bible, Brother Jacob told Isaac the story of God creating the world as a good place, about Adam and Eve and the temptation of Satan, and about their disobedience of God. He declared that as a consequence of their sin, Adam and Eve became alienated from the presence of God and enslaved to darkness, sin, and death. So how could their relationship with God be restored? How could they return to the garden of Eden?

Brother Jacob went on to talk about Cain and Abel, the descent of the world into evil, and the rescue of Noah and his family. He noted that God called Abraham from Babylon to follow him and gave him eight sons. He talked about the descendants of Abraham, about David, about the disobedience of his son Solomon and his descendants, until it came to the true son of David, the true heir of Abraham’s promises, the second Adam, Jesus, who was the first human being in history to completely submit himself to the will of God. He said that it was the will of God that Jesus the Messiah should suffer death on the Cross to save humanity, and that God raised him back to life. God exalted Jesus to sit at his own right hand as Lord and Savior of the world.

Brother Jacob said that the Lord Jesus had appeared to him as well, in 1969, and had shown him that he was the way of salvation. He read in the Gospel where Jesus said, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me” (John 14:6). Jesus, he said, was himself the sirat mustaqim. Master Isaac said he believed in Jesus and was ready to serve him and wanted to be baptized right then and there. Brother Jacob, however, counseled him to wait. He said, “God has made you a great leader, and he wants all of your followers to know that Jesus the Messiah, and he alone, is the way of salvation. Go home and tell your wives and children first that Jesus is the Lord and Savior, and then tell your closest disciples.” Isaac agreed, and they set a date for Jacob to come and share the good news.

About two weeks later, at the appointed time, Jacob arrived to find a gathering of two hundred or more of Isaac’s leading disciples. The Sufi master began by telling them all the story of his prayer and the vision he was given by God. He described traveling during a storm to get to Brother Jacob’s house to ask him the secret of salvation. He then asked Brother Jacob to tell them all the way. So Brother Jacob told the story again, starting with the Qur’an and then moving to the Bible. He told the story of Creation, the Fall, and the descendants of Adam down to Jesus the Messiah. He called them to put their faith in Jesus as their Lord and Savior. All of the leaders agreed, but they said they must first share this news with their wives and children.

A few weeks later Master Isaac sent word to Brother Jacob to come back. Brother Jacob arrived to find that the Sufi master and 250 of his leading disciples were ready to be baptized. So Brother Jacob baptized Isaac and his wives and son. Then he told Isaac’s wives to baptize their daughters. He then instructed Isaac to baptize the 250 senior leaders of his movement and to send them home to baptize their own wives and children, share the word with others, and baptize those who believed. On that day several thousand people were baptized, thus beginning a movement to Christ within a culturally Muslim community.

Brother Jacob had brought along three cases of New Testaments, and he gave these to Master Isaac for distribution to his leaders. But three days later Isaac returned the cases, saying they were obviously not for his people, as they were not in his language—at least not the way they used it. There were too many foreign and ecclesiastical terms, and too many occurrences of words that pertained to a different ethnic group. Brother Jacob, however, had a poetic paraphrase of the gospel story that he had prepared, using familiar and acceptable language, and he offered that. Master Isaac thought this book was won derful, and he took a large quantity back with him for his flock. At that point Brother Jacob realized that these new disciples of Christ needed a Bible in familiar and intelligible language, and so he initiated a Bible translation project for them, starting with the Gospel of Mark.

These two movements continue as culturally sensitive house-church movements, in spite of various forms of persecution—both from some church people who do not like this approach and from those Muslims who are not happy to see people following Christ. Master Isaac has died, but the movement he led continues under the pastoral care of his sons. They are confident that since it was the Lord Jesus himself who directed them to Brother Jacob and his insider approach, the Lord will also guide and protect them and through them bless the Muslim community to which they belong. The preceding story describes a Jesus movement within a Muslim community—but there is more to it than that. These Muslims became disciples of Jesus in what we could call a “house-church movement,” but which remained part of the Muslim community. Following the guidance of God’s Spirit, they were not integrated into the existing national church, as most Christians would expect. What happened with Brother Jacob and Master Isaac may be unusual, but it is not unique. Similar stories have emerged, at times causing controversy or conflict within the Christian community (both local and global), not to mention their own non-Christian communities. Within the Christian missions community, this kind of discipleship-to-Jesus movement has often been referred to as an “insider movement” (IM).

As the title indicates, the aim of this book is to aid the reader in “understanding insider movements.” Part 1 sets the stage. Six articles orient the reader to these “disciples of Jesus within diverse religious communities” by providing definition, historical background, conceptual perspective, answers to common questions and objections, and critical reflection on our assessment criteria.

Chapter 1, “Insider Movements: Coming to Terms with Terms” by John Jay Travis, offers a working definition of IMs based on a description of their fundamental characteristics.

In chapter 2, “Historical Development of the Insider Paradigm,” Harley Talman notes that IMs resemble what took place in first-century movements, where original socioreligious identity was retained, but that they differ from the traditional paradigm of Protestant missions. Nevertheless, we can trace the emergence of IM ideas in the modern era back to the late nineteenth century.

Chapter 3, “Muslim Followers of Jesus?” by Joseph Cumming, gives a balanced presentation of two opposing viewpoints, along with a response by an Arab Christian, Martin Accad.

Chapter 4, “When God’s Kingdom Grows like Yeast: Frequently Asked Questions about Jesus Movements within Muslim Communities,” comes from the pens of John Jay Travis and J. Dudley Woodberry, two recognized authorities on IMs in Islamic contexts. (Please keep in mind that IMs occur within communities of other religious traditions as well.)

Chapter 5, “Myths and Misunderstandings about Insider Movements” by Kevin Higgins, Richard Jameson, and Harley Talman, addresses concerns commonly raised by critics.

Chapter 6, “Seeing Inside Insider Missiology” by Len Bartlotti, examines the “lenses” through which we analyze and assess insider movements. It may be that some of our core convictions and theological standards reflect assumptions and personal preferences rather than biblical mandates.

Chapter 1 Insider Movements Coming to Terms with Terms John Jay Travis

Both Scripture and church history indicate that when people discover Jesus, they want to tell others about it. Similar to the woman at the well, who joyfully shared with fellow Samaritans, many others over the centuries have told their families and friends about Jesus in ways that have led to movements. This present volume explores insider movements, whereby people of non-Christian religions follow Jesus as Lord and Savior while remaining integrally part of the family and socioreligious community of their birth. This first chapter focuses on the meaning and usage of a number of key terms and important related concepts found throughout the book.

“Socioreligious” and “Religiocultural”

The terms “socioreligious” and “religiocultural” are used to describe the close relationship that is often observed between religion and culture. Millions worldwide understand their religion or religious identity as something inseparably bound to their ethnic, national, social, or family identity. It is instructive that many people with little or no belief in God or interest in spiritual matters still view themselves as members of a religion. This phenomenon might help explain why in the United States, for instance, a recent poll indicates that 77 percent of the population self-identify as “Christian” even though it is hard to imagine that this many Americans are actual followers of Jesus. Similar statistics involving religious identity are found in other countries as well, causing some to speak of “cultural Jews,” “cultural Muslims,” or “cultural Christians” (note: while observers may use this terminology, members of these religions do not usually add the word “cultural” when referring to themselves). By using the terms “socioreligious” and “religiocultural,” we remind ourselves that for most of the world, a change of religions is not simply a shift in personal beliefs; it means separation from family, community, and society.

“Christian,” “Christianity,” and “Follower of Jesus”

The way the terms “Christian” and “Christianity” are generally used in this book differs from the narrower meaning that evangelicals typically give them (i.e., denoting true saving faith in Jesus; being “born again”). Rather, most of the authors, having spent much of their lives in cross-cultural ministry, use the terms “Christian” or “Christianity” to designate socioreligious categories, as do many cultures of the world. Thus these terms are applied to both committed and nominal “Christians,” be they Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, or other. The terms “follower/disciple of Jesus” or “follower/disciple of Christ” are more commonly used in this book to refer to those with true faith and heart allegiance to Jesus— what most evangelicals mean when they use the term “Christian.” The initially strange-sounding phrase “non-Christian followers of Christ,” therefore, would indicate people who are socioreligiously not “Christian”—they identify as Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, etc.—yet are spiritually, morally, and biblically true followers or disciples of Jesus.

“Insider,” “Insider Movements,” and Related Terms

Although the term “insider” can be used in a variety of ways, here we mean “a person from a non-Christian background who has accepted Jesus as Lord and Savior but retained the socioreligious identity of his or her birth.” This means that in following Jesus, insiders have not left the religious community in which they were raised, nor have they joined a denomination or branch of Christianity.

Several good definitions of “insider movements” have been published and widely used since 2004. In the following section is a working definition of this term based on key characteristics of these movements. First, though, we look at two other, related expressions: “Jesus movements within” and “the Insider Movement.”

The term “Jesus movements within” (JMW) is often used in place of “insider movements.” Many prefer this term because of the clear focus on Jesus and the ability to indicate the religious community in which the movement is occurring: “a Jesus movement within the Hindu community,” or “within a Muslim community,” and so forth.

At times we read the term “the Insider Movement.” Many consider this a misnomer, however, because there is no singular movement, organization, institution, or group that could rightly be called “the Insider Movement.” The majority of insider movements worldwide are localized, organic, and largely unaware of each other. Hence most people who understand them speak of “insider movements” in the plural rather than “the Insider Movement.”

A Working Definition of Insider Movements

Throughout this book we only refer to movements as insider movements if they contain each of the five following dynamics or characteristics: 1. Following Jesus and the Bible: following Jesus as the risen Lord and Savior and the Bible as the word of God. 2. Fellowships with indigenous leadership: gatherings occurring in culturally appropriate ways for prayer, Bible study, and fellowship (i.e., biblical ekklesiae) within families and social networks, led by fellow insiders whom God has raised up for leadership. 3. Spiritual transformation: spiritual transformation occurring through the leading of the Spirit and the study of Scripture, resulting in certain cultural and religious beliefs and practices being retained, others reinterpreted, and still others rejected. 4. Remaining as witnesses: disciples remaining integral members of their families and socioreligious communities, as witnesses for Jesus. 5. Multiplication: ongoing witnessing and prayer leading to the multiplication of new followers of Jesus, new insider leaders, and reproducing insider fellowships. A useful working definition of insider movements, therefore, is the following: Multiplying networks of Jesus followers in insider-led fellowships where the Bible is obeyed as the word of God, spiritual transformation occurs, and insiders remain part of the families and socioreligious communities of their birth, bearing witness to Jesus, their risen Lord and Savior.

Related Concepts

The following concepts are explored in greater depth throughout the book. They are mentioned briefly here, however, because they bring greater immediate clarity to the working definition of insider movements given above. 1. While insider believers have some different beliefs from fellow Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Muslims, or Jews who do not yet follow Jesus, they intentionally look for ways to find common ground with their people. But they do this while staying true to the Bible and the daily leading of the Spirit in their lives. They retain anything from their socioreligious community that is helpful, praiseworthy, and not contrary to Scripture.

2. This dynamic of remaining within one’s religious community while having some different beliefs causes both continuity and discontinuity with the past. This means that while much is retained, some beliefs and practices are reinterpreted or rejected. For instance, Hindu followers of Jesus reject the worship of multiple gods and goddesses (polytheism). Instead they worship only the one true God, the maker of heaven and earth, whom they know through Jesus Christ. They would, however, as God leads them, be part of the life of the local Hindu community as much as is biblically possible, not taking steps to adopt another socioreligious membership or identity.

3. In other contexts, Jewish followers of Jesus reject the standard Jewish teachings that Yeshua (Jesus) is not the Messiah and that the New Testament is not true Scripture, yet they still live traditionally Jewish lives as respectful members of the Jewish community. Muslim followers of Jesus whom we know reject the commonly disseminated teachings that Jesus did not die and rise again and that the New Testament has been corrupted; however, they continue to live as part of their Muslim community, respecting it and participating in its traditions and practices insofar as conscience and the Bible allow. Similar patterns of retaining, rejecting, and reinterpreting aspects of religious life and culture in light of the word of God and the leading of the Spirit are seen in insider movements among Buddhists and Sikhs as well (see chaps. 11 and 19). Even as Jews in the first century eventually pressured Jews who followed Jesus to leave, so it may happen with some insider movements. The point is that even if insiders are one day rejected or feel the need to leave, they are not the ones initiating the separation from their families and communities.

4. It is crucial to point out, however, that even though those in insider movements follow Jesus as their Lord and Savior and obey the Bible as God’s revealed word, they should not be viewed as simply Christians by another name. These are fresh expressions of faith in Jesus where he was not known before. Insider leaders are involved in the same process of self-discovery and self-theologizing that countless others have gone through since the gospel broke out of the Jewish context and entered Gentile contexts two thousand years ago. The reality of insider movements raises the question of who is really a part of the kingdom of God and the body of Christ, and of who has the right to interpret Scripture.

5. Finally, a key feature in describing the fellowships in these movements is that (depending on the local situation) they are open and inviting to those who do not yet know Jesus. In addition, these groups, which are generally family centered and home based, are relationally linked with numerous similar groups, fostering momentum and movement.

Chapter 2 Historical Development of the Insider Paradigm Harley Talman

First men say that it is not true, then that it is against religion, and, in the third stage, that it has long been known. —Louis Agassiz on new theories

Insider Movements: Old or New? Ever since the Jewish roots of the gospel first produced Gentile fruit, there have been varied viewpoints among God’s people regarding the interrelations of faith in Christ, religious tradition, and sociocultural-political identity. Therefore, differing perspectives on insider movements should not surprise us.

One of the current points of discussion is whether insider movements have historical precedent or if they are an entirely new phenomenon and represent a new paradigm of mission. In support of the former are those who find precursors and principles foundational to insider movements in the Old Testament. Others note, additionally, that Jesus never advocated a proselyte model of conversion: Jewish converts remained socioreligious Jews, Samaritans did not become Jewish to follow Jesus, and various groups of Gentiles followed Jesus as Gentiles.2 Furthermore, the Apostle Paul insisted in his letters to the Romans and Galatians that faith in Christ should not carry its religious trappings into a new socioreligious context, and the Jerusalem Council confirmed this missionary principle and practice. Hence many do not view insider movements as something new at all, but as similar to the movements that took place in the first century.

Others, however, describe insider phenomena from the vantage point of modern history. They observe that insider movements are strikingly different from the typical fruit of modern Protestant mission, where both tribal peoples and those few from the world’s major religious traditions who came to faith in Jesus joined some branch of Christianity to express their faith.

Therefore we can say that the insider paradigm is both old and new: it is old in that it resembles what took place in first-century movements, where original socioreligious identity was retained, and it is new in that it differs from the traditional paradigm of Protestant missions. Insider movements are new expressions of an ancient pattern. As we read of this “new” paradigm, we should remember that it accords with ways God has been working that are as old as the gospel itself.

This chapter identifies examples of insiders in the modern era and discussions in the literature that envisioned or described such an approach, emphasizing the newness of the paradigm in contrast to traditional Protestant mission.

In the process we will observe another “old/new” phenomenon: the fact that God’s elect have often displayed negative or even hostile attitudes toward those of other religious traditions. Just as Jesus’ Jewish disciples were allergic to Samaritans and Gentiles, so modern Christians frequently have an aversion to non-Christian religions. Yet new disciples of Jesus from the major religious traditions have often sought to integrate their life in Christ with the thought and practices of their social and religious heritage. This chapter will trace early attempts at such indigenization and contextualization in the modern era, which have contributed to the development of the insider paradigm. We shall see that then, as now, such endeavors have often met with resistance from traditional Christians.

Early Advocates of the Insider Paradigm Brahmabandhab Upadhyay (1861–1907) was an Indian nationalist who, after deciding to follow Jesus, sought to indigenize his faith in Christ by integrating Hindu and Catholic identities. He utilized Hindu philosophy to express gospel truth (akin to Hellenistic Christians exploiting Greek philosophy). His dream of a Hindu-friendly Catholic monastery was rejected by the church as being too radical. He was thwarted by the top clerics in the Indian church, and his writings were eventually banned by Rome. His later life was marked by disillusionment with the West and its influence, and he determined that political engagement was essential for the evangelization of his homeland.

But we find a happier engagement between a Hindu follower of Christ and the Christian church in the life of Kandaswami Chetti (1867–1943). He more authentically embodies the insider paradigm. While affirming his membership in the body of Christ, he did not join the existing Indian churches or change his identity to “Christian.” His motivation was to “prepare the way for a movement from within Hindu society towards a Christ who shall fulfill India’s highest aspirations and impart that life of freedom for which she has been panting for ages.”

At the same time, but with no apparent connection to the likes of Upadhyay and Chetti, a radically different conception of mission to Hindus began to appear among Christian workers. The year 1893 records the voice of an obscure member of the Wesleyan Missionary Society from Mysore City (in South India), the Reverend H. Haigh. Without providing us with details of his vision, Haigh argues for a drastically different approach to mission that corresponds with the insider mentality:

The principle I contend for, then, is this: that the books which we publish should be carefully related to Hindu thought, expressed in its terms, done in its style, adopting where it can its positions, and leading on, still in Hindu fashion and in its terminology, from points of agreement to essential points of difference. In this way we may, perhaps, be able to furnish an effectual exhibition of legitimately “Hinduized Christianity.”

N. V. Tilak (1861–1919) was also a zealous Indian nationalist and talented poet. This Brahmin was challenged to read the Bible and was soon converted and baptized in 1895. As a Protestant missionary, he pioneered use of Hindu forms to express biblical faith, especially his devotional songs and poetry. After more than twenty years of service, he resigned and entered the fourth and final stage of high-caste Hindu life, sannyasa (renunciation), but contextualizing it with seven biblical requirements. At age fifty-five, he launched “God’s darbar” (“the royal court of God”). Through this fraternity of baptized as well as unbaptized Christ followers (for whom, among the latter, baptism represented antipatriotism), Tilak sought to offer to India a de-Westernized Jesus as its ultimate guru. However, Tilak died within two years, and the darbar with him. But he left a legacy of a radical attempt at indigenized discipleship—seeking to be fully biblical and fully Hindu.

In subsequent years, kingdom yeast silently penetrated the dough of Hindu society. Decades later (c. 1980), Lutheran missionary Herbert Hoefer stumbled upon some Hindu Christ followers in South India, whom he labeled “non-baptized believers in Christ.” Churchless Christianity presented the astounding conclusion of his research—that there were more of these Hindu followers of Christ in Chennai than there were Indian Christians. But his description of their theological thinking and practice was troubling to outside observers. However, since that time, these believers have defined themselves as “Jesu bhaktas” (devotees of Jesus), an accepted category within Hindu piety. Moreover, these Hindu disciples of Christ complained to Hoefer about the title of his book on two counts. First of all, they insisted that they were not “churchless,” even though the structure of their faith community differed from that of the West. Secondly, they were not “Christianity,” because their biblical faith was expressed through Hindu religious forms and identity.

Shifting to the Muslim world, we find early expression of insider paradigm thinking in Rev. Henry Riggs’ 1938 “Report Written on Behalf of the Near East Council on Muslim Evangelism.” Veteran missions thinkers felt that decades of “missionary work among Moslems has not produced the results that ought to be expected from so much sacrifice and labor.” So the Near East Christian Council conducted a two-year investigation to explore the reasons for this “sterility.” The council found two fundamental causes. The first was that “Christian teaching does not mean the same to the Moslem that it does to the Christian” (this highlighted the need for what was later termed “contextualization”). The second was that “in the thought of the Moslem a change of religion is primarily a change of groupconnection and group-loyalty.” The report concluded,

In the thought of the Moslem a change of religion is primarily a change of group-connection and group-loyalty. “Every convert to Christianity is a dead loss to the community.” “The Moslem Community is a noble and sacred thing, a social-political-religious fellowship for which the believer is willing to give his life.” “The greatest handicap against which the Christian missionary has to strive is the power of Moslem solidarity.” “There are thousands of men and women who believe in Christ and are trying to follow him, but they cannot bring themselves to face the break with their own community.”

The great fact pointed out in these statements is very evident. But is this unwillingness to break with their own community due only to lack of courage or conviction? Not always. Many cases have been reported of true believers in Christ who have refused to break with the Moslem community because they wish to live among their own people, to make Christ known to them. . . .

It is the conviction of a large number of workers among Moslems that the ultimate hope of bringing Christ to the Moslems is to be attained by the development of groups of followers of Jesus who are active in making him known to others while remaining loyally a part of the social and political groups to which they belong in Islam. . . .

The aspiration here expressed is that the church of Christ might take root within the social-political body called Islam, and not as an alien body encroaching from without.”

It was recognized that the report’s findings would demand “radical changes in the attitudes, methods and thinking” of Christian workers among Muslims, but Riggs and his colleagues were realists who recognized that most of their fellow missionaries felt “duty bound to follow the traditional lines of presentation.” This in fact was the reaction of the majority at Delhi and Tambaram (Madras) conferences in December 1938. Riggs later reported that at both places “discussion was almost entirely devoted to a few of the suggestions, mainly regarding unbaptized believers. Objections to the encouragement of such believers were so urgent as to crowd out almost entirely any real consideration of the underlying principles quoted above.”

In 1941 the Moslem World featured the Near East Council’s report sandwiched between responses by two critics. Samuel Zwemer’s editorial cited a resolution of a group from the Madras conference and the preconference gathering in Delhi that rejected the report due to “the vital necessity of open witness to Christ within the fellowship of the Christian Church” and the need for the Moslem “to break with his past to accept a new way of life in Christ.”19 Zwemer rightly rejected the ecumenical agenda of Harvard professor William Hocking (who advocated a “new World Faith with elements of value taken from all the living religions of humanity”). Zwemer likewise opposed those who sought to replace evangelism with social action. In nearly the same breath, Zwemer rejected proposed changes in missionary method. Although he acknowledged that the Riggs report had “much to commend it,” he viewed its prospects as having even less impact than even a “merely social gospel.” Similarly, J. Christy Wilson understood the report as advocating secret belief and cried out for “open confession.”

However, the following year the Moslem World published the response of one who had attended both the Delhi and Madras deliberations. He asserted that the objections of Zwemer and Wilson to the Near East Council’s report were based on a grave misunderstanding of two of its central tenets. First, it was arguing against extraction evangelism: The very terminology [“convert from Islam”] puts before the reader the idea of controversy, of struggle to take out of one group, and put into another group, which the Near East survey sought to obviate. The idea of that survey was rather to permit the follower of Jesus to stay within Islam, to claim his right as a “Muslim,” one sur-rendered and dedicated to God—to investigate the prophet Jesus and his Revelation and to follow all the way in obedience to Jesus, considering himself all the while not one who has left Islam but one who, taking Muhammad at his word as to Jesus and the Gospel, has discovered what that really means and has gone on to the more advanced position of utter surrender to the revelation of God in Jesus. This should be the inalienable right of every Moslem. No one ought to have to think that this necessarily involves the proclamation to the world of consequent separation from Islam.

The second misunderstanding was that “such a follower of Jesus will not witness by words as well as by life.” This defender of the Riggs report insisted that Zwemer, Wilson, and other critics had drawn a false dichotomy.

The contrast between the “unbeaten path” suggested by Mr. Riggs and the long-trodden path of the last century is not between “dynamic Christians” and “secret believers,” but between 100-percent followers of Jesus who are trying to be both “wise as serpents and harmless as doves” and ill-advised followers who, like foolish farmers, are scattering their precious seed broadcast on soil that is dry and hardened into something like rock by long exposure to the sun. The first group are not less loyal to Jesus. They simply take more thoughtfully his repeated teaching that fruit will be born only from seed cast on prepared ground and that it is foolish to offer precious gifts to those whose training and preparation can only make them trample these underfoot.

In 1944, after an obituary that eulogized Riggs, who had recently died, an article by S. A. Morrison expressed his view that the issues raised by the Riggs report had not been sufficiently discussed. While agreeing with the Near East Council’s diagnosis, he proposed that the solution to the problem of corporate solidarity in Islam was “promotion of religious freedom in Moslem lands.” But this offered little hope for the near term (as in the seventy years since). More realistically, he acknowledged a growing consensus against “controversy” in evangelism, and the need to win the family or group, delaying individual baptisms if necessary to do so.

Many Religions, One Gospel* I do not conceive of the gospel of Christ as a religion at all. Jesus never used the word. It was foreign to his conception. He was not coming to set one religion over against another. He came to set the gospel over against human need, whether that need be in the Jewish faith, the Gentile religions, or among Jesus’ own followers. “There are many religions; there is but one gospel.” For religions are man’s search for God; the gospel is God’s search for man. One is from man up to God, and the other is from God down to man.

I know, when I say that, it sounds presumptuous, for a religion was built up around Jesus . . . but the gospel confronts that man-made and fallible system with the same demand and offer as it does the other religions. We do not preach this system built up around Jesus; we preach to it just as we would preach to any other human need. Our message is not the system, but the Savior.

He is the gospel. The gospel lies in his Person. He himself is the good news. He didn’t come to bring the good news. He is the good news. We therefore bring him to East and West and say: The issue is simple. Christ and his kingdom is the issue. Take him direct. . . . Go straight to the Gospels to discover Jesus anew. —E. Stanley Jones * Excerpt from E. Stanley Jones, Mahatma Gandhi: An Interpretation (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1948), 63–64.

It was not until 1947 that the Moslem World resumed its discussion of the Near East Council’s report with A. R. Stevenson’s “Whoever Shall Confess Me Before Men. . . .” He acknowledged that there were good reasons to support the report’s position, but he would present only the case against it: “Christian converts drawn from the Moslem community should be urged to make public profession of their faith.” His article emphasized the example of apostolic witness and the utter absence of NT teaching supporting “secret belief.” Methodologically, Stevenson could not see how a vital, growing church could ever materialize following the latter alternative. Thus the erroneous understanding of what the Near East Council report had advocated persisted. Critics could only conceive of two options: aggressive, outspoken public witness or secret belief—despite the 1942 clarification that the unbeaten path being proposed was a third way: that of faithful disciples of Christ who were wise-as-serpent witnesses and did not “cast their pearls before swine.” Perhaps if the critics lived another generation and witnessed the spectacular growth of the underground church in Communist China, they might have responded differently; for under repressive totalitarian communism, the underground church did not follow an “open, public confession” methodology, but instead that of discreet and opportune witness similar to the “unbeaten path” envisioned by the Riggs report.

Thereafter, discussion of these ideas disappeared from the pages of the Moslem World, but they did not die. In 1969, veteran Southern Baptist missionary Virginia Cobb was weakened by disease and soon to be in the presence of the Lord, but her paper was read at the Tehran Conference, greatly impacting the conferees:

We are not trying to change anyone’s religion. Religion consists of affiliation with a group . . . [a] dogma, and structure of authority. . . . The New Testament is quite clear that none of these saves. It is possible to change all of them without knowing God. . . . Our message is a Person we’ve experienced, not a doctrine, system, [or] religion.

A few years later, in 1976, Martin Goldsmith reiterated the social impediment to conversion, hinting at the difference between personal piety and religious identity in Islamic society:

Islam is within the whole warp and woof of society—in the family, in politics, in social relationships. To leave the Muslim faith is to break with one’s whole society. . . . Many a modern educated Muslim is not all that religiously minded; but he must, nevertheless, remain a Muslim for social reasons. . . . This makes it almost unthinkable for most Muslims even to consider the possibility of becoming a follower of some other religion.

For this reason, it has been observed that the conversion of a Muslim to Christianity has usually triggered a mechanism similar to the “transplant rejection” phenomenon in medicine. Converts are cut off from the family and society, and if the traditional sanction against “apostasy” (i.e., death) is not applied, they are forced to return to Islam, to join one of the isolated minority communities, or to emigrate to the West.

The following year John D. C. Anderson proposed the concept of a “Jesus Muslim”: Is it possible for a man to be a child of God, a worshipper of Christ, and yet still to fall under the broad national and cultural category of being a Muslim? . . . There are many experienced Christians who would regard it as blatant compromise, or as a form of religious syncretism. But our need is to differentiate between the traditional concept of making a Muslim into a Christian, with all the transfer of his loyalties to an imported Christian subculture that this involves, and, in contrast, that of making him into a disciple of Jesus Christ, with a primary loyalty to him as Saviour and lord from amidst his nationalities. His headlong confrontation with conservative Muslim theology will come sooner or later. But may he have enough time to demonstrate to his family and friends that the servant of Christ is neither a blasphemer of Allah, nor a traitor to the best interests of his country, but in the highest possible sense one who submits himself to the will of God (which is what Islam means)? Thus the emphasis we are trying to make is upon the Muslim and his culture being changed from within. It was just in such a way that our Western culture has been changed from within, when once the transforming gospel made its entree. This approach is not currently accepted by the Western church. It is contended here, however, that its implications need much closer study. In any case, what are we to say to the fact that our traditional approach to the Muslim has been so singularly unproductive? In the past, a convert from Islam has only been seen by his fellow countrymen in a negative light as one who throws out Islam in toto. Whereas in fact, there is much in Islam that appeals to the conscience of good men.

The issue is really where the ultimate spiritual battle is to be fought. Is it to be inside Islam, or outside? In the one case a few expelled converts try, if they have the courage, to persuade their erstwhile Muslim friends to leave Islam and to join the Christians. In the other, a thousand earnest disciples, with varying depths of spiritual perception, are asking questions within Islam, which may ultimately shake it to its foundations.

Also in 1977, John Wilder wrote optimistically of Muslim people movements to Christ taking place along these lines. At the Glen Eyrie conference that same year, Harvie Conn outlined key concepts that laid foundations for later insider movement thinking. Conn emphasized the need to move beyond the traditional apologetic approach that set Christianity against Islam as monolithic ideologies. Moreover, essentialist views of religion failed to account for the sociological diversity found in Muslim cultures and precluded attempts to “transform or possess Islamic culture for Christ.” Conn also argued for conversion as a process of discipleship and for group decisions in an effort to remove unnecessary social, cultural, and communal obstacles to Muslims coming to Christ. The only barrier must be Christ alone. Conn’s attitude toward the notion of “Jesus Muslims” or a “Muslimun ‘Issawiyun (submission to Jesus) movement” was indicated by his conclusion: “We must look for a verbal equivalent similar to the Jews for Jesus movement who speak instead of being ‘completed in Christ.’” Meanwhile Charles Kraft called for “dynamic equivalence” churches that focused on true “faith-allegiance” versus Christianity as a religious system.39 These writings, all published prior to 1980, were followed by a seminal article by J. Dudley Woodberry in 1989 that provided one of the first case studies of the birth and growth of an IM.

Meanwhile, outside the arena of these missiological discussions, new practices were quietly being pioneered on the ground. For example, beginning in the 1930s, Rev. Fouad Accad, chairman of the Bible Society of the Middle East for forty-two years, had a fruitful evangelistic ministry among Muslims in the Arab world that embodied insider paradigm principles. By the 1970s, he was mentoring several missionaries and nationals in his approach (a number of whom are still active in insider ministry). Accad pored over the Qur’an along with Muslim commentaries and literature, searching for stepping stones to Jesus. He then developed and wrote The Seven Muslim Christian Principles, supporting each principle with verses from the Tawrah (OT), Zabur (Psalms), Injil (NT), and Qur’an. The team he was mentoring field-tested the book and saw it bear fruit. Accad’s mentoring ministry spread internationally, helping movements develop in other parts of the globe.

Contemporary Developments Regarding Insider Movements During the past two millennia, millions of adherents of the world’s “minor religious traditions” (e.g., animistic, tribal, and ethnic belief systems) have accepted Jesus and embraced an entirely new religion, Christianity. However, those from the world’s presen

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Reflections on Reaching the Scattered Peoples of the World

by: Michael Pocock (Editor) , Enoch Wan (Editor)

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For many years, cross-cultural missions were directed to people in the countries of their birth, generally in Majority World areas. Foreigners present among or around the intended focus of ministry were not viewed as part of mission ministry. Diaspora missions focus on these peoples, who are now actually and virtually in more accessible places. This book will help you understand the dynamics behind this accelerated movement of peoples from one region to another, biblical principles and precedents that guide ministry today, the application of social and communication studies, and actual cases of ministry to and with diaspora peoples.

Introduction 1 Michael Pocock Introduction 2 Enoch Wan

Part One: The Current Phenomenon of Global Diasporas

Chapter One Global Migration: Where Do We Stand? Michael Pocock Chapter Two Mapping the Diaspora with Facebook Trevor Castor Chapter Three The Muslim Diaspora Mark Hausfeld and Joshua Fletcher (Pseudonym)

Part Two: Theory and Models of Diaspora Missiology

Chapter Four Assessing the Value of Diaspora Community Input in Missiological Research Fred Farrokh Chapter Five Mission by and beyond the Diaspora: Partnering with Diaspora Believers to Reach Other Immigrants and the Local People Stan Downes

Part Three: Biblical and Theological Guidelines

Chapter Six Diaspora Ministry in the Book of Acts: Insights from Two Speeches of the Apostle Paul to Help Guide Diaspora Ministry Today Larry W. Caldwell Chapter Seven God’s New Humanity in Diaspora: A Church of the Nations and for the Nations David Stevens

Part Four:

Strategy and Models Chapter Eight Three Models of Acculturation: Applications for Developing a Church Planting Strategy among Diaspora Populations David R. Dunaetz Chapter Nine The “With” of Diaspora Missiology: The Impact of Kinship, Honor, and Hospitality on the Future of Missionary Training, Sending, and Partnership Jacques Hébert

Part Five:Case Studies in Diaspora Missions

Chapter Ten Mission and the Palestinian Diaspora Andrew F. Bush Chapter Eleven The Ethiopian Diaspora: Ethiopian Immigrants as Cross-cultural Missionaries; Activating the Diaspora for Great Commission Impact Jessica A. Udall

Part Six: The Way Forward

Chapter Twelve Organizing to Reach the Diaspora: A Case Study of The International Mission Board, SBC; Changing Its Overseas Structure from Geographic Components to Global Affinity Groups Jerry Rankin Chapter Thirteen Diaspora Missiology and Beyond: Paths Taken and Ways Forward Enoch Wan

Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Selected Bibliography Contributors

Figures Figure 1: Muslim Americans Figure 2: Predictable Sociological Process Figure 3: Determinants of Group Identity Figure 4: Four Acculturation Strategies Figure 5: Emic Diaspora: The Jewish Diaspora Figure 6: Etic Diaspora: Foreigners in the Land Figure 7: Emic Diaspora as a Bridge to the Natal Land Figure 8: Etic Diaspora as a Bridge to the World

Tables Table 1: The Push and Pull Forces that Move People Table 2: Muslim Population in NY Table 3: Common Misconceptions Table 4: Current Diaspora-natal Integration Table 5: Types of Exogenous Networking Table 6: The Landscape of Relational Networks Table 7: Affinity Groups Table 8: Diaspora Missiology

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Getting Started

by: Patrick Lai (Author)

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focuses on answering the question: “How do you start a business that transforms communities of unreached peoples?” Starting a business cross-culturally involves thousands of decisions. Until now, BAM and B4T practitioners have been lacking a tool that explains how to start a business that engages unreached people for Jesus’ sake. This book draws on years of experience from scores of OPEN workers who are BAM/B4T practitioners. BAM/B4T are among the faster growing segments of the worldwide mission movement. It is written for new workers and coaches who need practical guidance in setting up and doing business in hard, churchless areas.

Patrick Lai is the most qualified person to tackle this most important topic in the world of Business as Mission. New workers need models, on-ramps and practical tools for getting started. Patrick has been on the ground in some of the hardest places in the world and has seen what works and what does not; and he knows the terrain ahead for new workers. This book will challenge, provide tools, and help future business owners who are responding to God’s call to bring lasting change through business.

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A pneumothorax (a term for collapsed lung) occurs when air leaks into the space between your lungs and chest wall, creating pressure against the lung. Depending on the cause of the pneumothorax, your lung may only partially collapse, or it may collapse completely.

Causes

A pneumothorax can be caused by a chest injury, certain medical procedures involving your lung, lung disease, or it may occur for no obvious reason.

A small, uncomplicated pneumothorax may quickly heal on its own, but when the pneumothorax is larger, the excess air is usually removed by inserting a tube or needle between your ribs and slowly removing the air over a few days.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax usually include:

If only a small amount of air enters the space between your lungs and your chest wall (pleural space), you may have few signs or symptoms. However, even a slightly collapsed lung is likely to cause some chest pain and some shortness of breath that slowly improves over a few hours to a day or so, even if there is no reduction in the size of the collapse.

See your doctor right away if you have sudden chest pain and trouble breathing of any kind. Many conditions other than pneumothorax can cause these symptoms, and most require an accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment. If your chest pain is severe or breathing becomes increasingly difficult, get immediate emergency care. Your lungs and chest wall are both elastic. As you inhale and exhale, your lungs recoil inward while your chest wall expands outward. The two opposing forces create a negative pressure in the space between your rib cage and lung. When air enters that space, either from inside or outside your lungs, the pressure it exerts can cause all or part of the affected lung to collapse.

There are several types of pneumothorax, defined according to what causes them:

Primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is thought to develop when a small air blister (bleb) on the top of the lung ruptures. Blebs are caused by a weakness in the lung tissue and can rupture from changes in air pressure when you're scuba diving, flying, mountain climbing or, according to some reports, listening to extremely loud music. Additionally, a primary spontaneous pneumothorax may occur while smoking marijuana, after a deep inhalation, followed by slow breathing out against partially closed lips that forces the smoke deeper into the lungs. But most commonly, blebs rupture for no obvious reason. Genetic factors may play a role in primary spontaneous pneumothorax because this condition may run in families. A primary spontaneous pneumothorax is usually mild because pressure from the collapsed portion of the lung may in turn collapse the bleb.

Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax: This develops in people who already have a lung disorder, especially emphysema, which progressively damages your lungs. Other conditions that can lead to secondary spontaneous pneumothorax include tuberculosis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis and lung cancer. In these cases, the pneumothorax occurs because the diseased lung tissue is next to the pleural space.

Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax can be more severe and even life-threatening because diseased tissue may open a wider hole, allowing more air into the pleural space than does a small, ruptured bleb. Additionally, people with lung disease already have reduced lung reserves, making any reduction in lung function more serious. A secondary spontaneous pneumothorax almost always requires chest tube drainage for treatment.

Traumatic pneumothorax: Any blunt or penetrating injury to your chest can cause lung collapse. Knife and gunshot wounds, a blow to the chest, even a deployed air bag can cause a pneumothorax. So can injuries that inadvertently occur during certain medical procedures, such as the insertion of chest tubes, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and lung or liver biopsies.

Tension pneumothorax: The most serious type of pneumothorax, this occurs when the pressure in the pleural space is greater than the atmospheric pressure, either because air becomes trapped in the pleural space or because the entering air is from a positive-pressure mechanical ventilator. The force of the air can cause the affected lung to collapse completely. It can also push the heart toward the uncollapsed lung, compressing both it and the heart. Tension pneumothorax comes on suddenly, progresses rapidly and is fatal if not treated quickly.

Treatment

The goal in treating a pneumothorax is to relieve the pressure on your lung, allowing it to re-expand, and to prevent recurrences. The best method for achieving this depends on the severity of the lung collapse and sometimes on your overall health:

If you have had more than one pneumothorax, you may have additional treatments to prevent further recurrences.

A common surgical procedure is called video-assisted thoracoscopy, which uses small incisions and a tiny video camera to guide the surgery. In this procedure, two or three tubes are placed between your ribs while you're under general anesthesia. Through one of the tubes, the surgeon can observe with a fiberscope, while through the other tube, the surgeon attempts to close the air leak with surgical instruments. Rarely, when this doesn't work, a surgical procedure with an incision is necessary.

The chest tube remains in as long as necessary until the air in the pleural space is gone and doesn't recur when the chest tube is clamped and checked with an X-ray. Video-assisted thoracoscopy leads to less pain and a shorter recovery time than other types of surgery do because the chest cavity can be accessed without breaking any ribs.

Prevention

Although it's often not possible to prevent a pneumothorax, stopping smoking is an important way to reduce your risk of a first pneumothorax and avoid a recurrence.

Risk factors for pneumothorax include:

Observation

Answer these 10 quick questions to uncover the real reasons why you’re not able to take control of your creative work.

This is part 2 of the Story Building series, based on Out on the Wire .

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It’s the best feeling: You’ve got a big idea. You dive in, and go deep, Ladies Of The 80s SneakersWoven Fashion Lace UP Sneaker Pink jtQzRanXW4
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Or, perhaps more precisely, how can you make clear to everyone else what it is that makes this idea so gripping for you ? Because it’s not always clear to us what it is that keeps us interested in our own work.

I’ve talked about how to find and feed an idea, how to identify your taste and pay attention to your attention. But even if you’ve got a whole stable of ideas, how do you figure out which ones work, and which ones don’t? How do you know if your idea is even worth pursuing?

Your ideas are seeds. Making stories is impossible without them, but you need to water them to figure out which ones are big strong oak trees and which ones are just scraggly little weeds.

That’s not as easy as it sounds to figure out. But by a very fortuitous coincidence, the very first reporting trip I made for Out on the Wire was to the Transom Workshop , in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, an eight-week workshop where Rob Rosenthal teaches up-and-coming radio producers how to make better stories.

What was great about that was that the students at the Transom Workshop were trying to figure out exactly what I needed to figure out as I was just starting a giant new project: how to discover what was at the heart of their stories.

Jessica Kittams forged into the unknown while I sat in on the class. She came in with four interviews with people involved in a pilot farming project on Martha’s Vineyard. Her idea had been to do some kind of overview of this project, but she was stuck.In a way, it was a problem of too much information: It was all interesting, and there was no one thread pulling things together other than the basic topic of “there’s a pilot farming project on Martha’s Vineyard.”

The class started digging into the interviews, and it quickly became apparent that the most intriguing character in the bunch was a young farmer named Lily with strong ideas about how she wanted to work.

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